Dynamics of a Nonadiabatic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor

This Demonstration shows the dynamics of a non-isothermal continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) where a first-order irreversible chemical reaction takes place. The dynamics of the system are described by the equations [1]
, ,
where and are the conversion and temperature at the reactor outlet, and represent the reactor fluid inlet temperature and cooling temperature, is the heat of reaction, is the heat transfer coefficient, and are the average density and heat capacity of the reactants, is the feed concentration, is the reaction rate as a function of temperature, is the activation energy, and and are constants. The solution shows multiple stationary states. These values determine the number of steady states possible: the feed concentration , the inlet temperature of the reactive and cooling fluid, the residence time, and the heat transfer coefficient. A single steady state is most common, but two and even three steady states can occur. When three steady states occur only two of them are stable, whereas the other stationary point (the middle one) is unstable. Qualitative and mathematical proofs of this complex behavior can be found in standard chemical engineering texts [1], [2], and [3].


  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]


[1] P. G. Gray and K. S. Scott, Chemical Oscillations and Instabilities: Non-Linear Chemical Kinetics, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
[2] L. A. Belfiore, Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
[3] L. D. Schmidt, The Engineering of Chemical Reactions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    • Share:

Embed Interactive Demonstration New!

Just copy and paste this snippet of JavaScript code into your website or blog to put the live Demonstration on your site. More details »

Files require Wolfram CDF Player or Mathematica.

Mathematica »
The #1 tool for creating Demonstrations
and anything technical.
Wolfram|Alpha »
Explore anything with the first
computational knowledge engine.
MathWorld »
The web's most extensive
mathematics resource.
Course Assistant Apps »
An app for every course—
right in the palm of your hand.
Wolfram Blog »
Read our views on math,
science, and technology.
Computable Document Format »
The format that makes Demonstrations
(and any information) easy to share and
interact with.
STEM Initiative »
Programs & resources for
educators, schools & students.
Computerbasedmath.org »
Join the initiative for modernizing
math education.
Step-by-Step Solutions »
Walk through homework problems one step at a time, with hints to help along the way.
Wolfram Problem Generator »
Unlimited random practice problems and answers with built-in step-by-step solutions. Practice online or make a printable study sheet.
Wolfram Language »
Knowledge-based programming for everyone.
Powered by Wolfram Mathematica © 2018 Wolfram Demonstrations Project & Contributors  |  Terms of Use  |  Privacy Policy  |  RSS Give us your feedback
Note: To run this Demonstration you need Mathematica 7+ or the free Mathematica Player 7EX
Download or upgrade to Mathematica Player 7EX
I already have Mathematica Player or Mathematica 7+