Effect of Time Delay on a Model of Bone Homeostasis

This Demonstration analyzes the effect of time delay on a model of bone homeostasis. The model consists of two delay-ordinary differential equations coupled to an ordinary differential equation [1]:
,
,
,
with initial condition and initial history functions and .
Here is the level of vitamin D above the basal level in blood, is the number of active bone-resorbing osteoclasts, is the number of active bone-forming osteoblasts, is time, and is the time delay necessary for cells to become active in the bone resorption and formation process. All parameters are positive constants defined in the reference. The time trajectory shows periodic behavior when the delay time is zero and increasing shows damped oscillations leading to a steady state; both of these conditions are observed clinically [1].

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Reference
[1] C. Rattanakul, "Effects of Vitamin D and Time Delay on Bone Resorption and Bone Formation: Mathematical Modeling Approach," International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 7(6), 2012 pp. 873–884. www.naun.org/main/NAUN/ijmmas/16-440.pdf.
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